The degree of chemical weathering in the Ba River basin, South Central Vietnam: Major-element geochemistry investigations of morden river sediments and sedimentary rocks

  • Affiliations:

    1 Faculty of Geosciences and Geoengineering, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam;
    2 Publishing Office, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam

  • *Corresponding:
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Received: 16th-Nov-2019
  • Revised: 6th-Jan-2020
  • Accepted: 28th-Feb-2020
  • Online: 28th-Feb-2020
Pages: 82 - 91
Views: 2379
Downloads: 1049
Rating: 5.0, Total rating: 104
Yours rating


Major-element geochemistry of Miocene sedimentary rock and modern river sediment samples in the Ba River basin, South Central Vietnam are utilized to assess the degree of chemical weathering in the Miocene and the present time. Sediment samples were analysed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer show that Miocene sedimentary rocks contain higher SiO2 and K2O, but lower Fe2O3, TiO2, MgO, Na2O, MnO, CaO, P2O5 than modern river sediment. Major-element geochemistry indicates that Miocene sedimentary rocks and modern river sediment are characterized by stronger depliption of Ca, Na and Mg than K and Si during the chemical weathering in this river basin. The similar relative depleption of Na, Ca, Mg, Si and K between modern river sediments and sedimentary rocks indicate not much deffirent the intensity of chemical weathering in the Miocene and the present time. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) alter from 69 to 93 in Miocene sedimentary rocks (average 74) and from 69 to 78 (average 77) in morden river sediments, indicating moderate chemical weathering in the Ba River basin in the Miocene and the present time.

How to Cite
Pham, S.Nhu, Nguyen, D.Tien, Khuong, H. The, Pham, H.Thanh Thi, Ta, T.Thi and Vo, C.Cong Thi 2020. The degree of chemical weathering in the Ba River basin, South Central Vietnam: Major-element geochemistry investigations of morden river sediments and sedimentary rocks (in Vietnamese). Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences. 61, 1 (Feb, 2020), 82-91. DOI:

Carter, A., Roques, D., Bristow, C.S. (2000). Denudation history of onshore central Vietnam: Constraints on the Cenozoic evolution of the western margin of the South China Sea. Tectonophysics, Vol322, pp. 265 - 277. 

Colin, C., Turpin, L., Blamart, D., Frank, N., Kissel, C., Duchamp, S. (2006). Evolution of weathering patterns in the Indo - Burman Ranges over the last 280 kyr: Effects of sediment provenance on 87Sr/86Sr ratios tracer. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 1-16. 

Dessert, C., Dupre, B., Francois, L.M., Schott, J., Gaillardet, J., Chakrapani, G., Bajpai, S. (2001). Erosion of Deccan Traps determined by river geochemistry: Impact on the global climate and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 188, No. 3-4, pp. 459-474. 

Galy, A., and France-Lanord, C. (1999). Weathering processes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra basin and the riverine alkalinity budget. Chemical Geology, Vol. 159, No. 1-4, pp. 31-60.

Hoang, N., Flower, M. (1998). Petrogenesis of Cenozoic Basalts from Vietnam: Implication for Origins of a Diffuse Igneous Province. Journal of Petrology, Vol. 39, pp. 369-395. 

Hoang, N., Flower, M.F.J., Chi, C.T., Xuan, P.T., Quy, H.V., Son, T.T. (2013). Collision-induced basalt eruptions at Pleiku and Buon Me Thuat, south-central Viet Nam. Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 69, pp. 65-83. 

Hu, B., Li, J., Cui, R., Wei, H., Zhao, J., Li, G., Fang, X. (2014). Clay mineralogy of the riverine sediments of Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implications for weathering and provenance. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 96, pp. 84-92. 

Jonell, T.N., Clift, P.D., Hoang, L.V., Hoang, T., Carter, A., Wittmann, H., Böning, P., Pahnke, K., Rittenour, T. (2016). Controls on erosion patterns and sediment transport in a monsoonal, tectonically quiescent drainage, Song Gianh, central Vietnam. Basin Research, Vol. 29, pp. 1-25.

Lan, C., Chung, S., Long, T.V., Lo, C., Lee, T., Mertzman, S.A., Shen, J.J. (2003). Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic constraints from the Kontum massif, central Vietnam on the crustal evolution of the Indochina block. Precambrian Research, Vol. 122, pp. 7-27. 

Lepvrier, C., Vuong, N.V., Maluski, H., Thi, P.T., Vu, T.V. (2008). Indosinian tectonics in Vietnam. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, Vol. 340, No. 2-3, pp. 94-111. 

Liu, Z., Colin, C., Huang, W., Phon, L.K., Tong, S., Chen, Z., Trentesaux, A. (2007). Climatic and tectonic controls on weathering in south China and Indochina Peninsula: Clay mineralogical and geochemical investigations from the Pearl, Red, and Mekong drainage basins. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 1-18. 

Liu, Z., Tuo, S., Colin, C., Liu, J.T., Huang, C.Y., Selvaraj, K., Chen, C.T.A., Zhao, Y., Siringan, F.P., Boulay, S., Chen, Z. (2008). Detrital fine-grained sediment contribution from Taiwan to the northern South China Sea and its relation to regional ocean circulation. Marine Geology, Vol. 255, No. 3-4, pp. 149-155. 

Liu, Z., Zhao, Y., Colin, C., Siringan, F.P., Wu, Q. (2009). Chemical weathering in Luzon, Philippines from clay mineralogy and major-element geochemistry of river sediments. Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 2195-2205. 

Liu, Z., Wang, H., Hantoro, W.S., Sathiamurthy, E., Colin, C., Zhao, Y., Li, J. (2012). Climatic and tectonic controls on chemical weathering in tropical Southeast Asia (Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra). Chemical Geology,Vol. 291, pp. 1-12. 

McLennan, S.M. (1993). Weathering and Global Denudation. The Journal of Geology, Vol. 101, No. 2, pp. 295-303.

Milliman, J.D., Farnsworth, K.L. (2011). River Discharge to the Coastal Ocean: A Global Synthesis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 382 pp.

Nakano, N., Osanai, Y., Owada, M., Nam, T.N., Toyoshima, T., Binh, P., Tsunogae, T., Kagami, H. (2007). Geologic and metamorphic evolution of the basement complexes in the Kontum Massif, central Vietnam. Gondwana Research, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 438-453. 

Nam, T.N. (1998). Thermotectonic events from Early Proterozoic to Miocene in the Indochina craton: Implication of K - Ar ages in Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 5-6, pp. 475-484. 

Nam, T.N., Sano, Y., Terada, K., Toriumi, M., Quynh, P.V., Dung, L.T. (2001). First SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of granulites from the Kontum massif (Vietnam) and tectonothermal implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 19, pp. 77-84. 

Nesbitt, H.W., Markovics, G., Price, R.C. (1980). Chemical processes affecting alkalis and alkaline Earth during continental weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 1659-1666. 

Nebitt, H.W., Young, G.M. (1982). Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, Vol. 299, No. 5885, pp. 715-717. 

Nesbitt, H.W., Young., G.M. (1989). Formation and diagenesis of weathering profiles. The Journal of Geology, Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 129-147. 

Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., McLennan, S.M., Keays, R.R. (1996). Effects of Chemical Weathering and Sorting on the Petrogenesis of Siliciclastic Sediments, with Implications for Provenance Studies. The Journal of Geology, Vol. 104, No. 5, pp. 525-542. 

Nielsen, L.H., Petersen, H.I., Thai, N.D., Duc, N.A., Fyhn, M.B.W., Boldreel, L.O., Tuan, H.A., Lindstrom, S., Hien, L.V. (2007). A Middle-Upper Miocen fluvial-lacustrine rift sequence in the Song Ba Rift, Vietnam: an analogue to oil-prone, small-scale continental rift basins. Petroleum Geoscience, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 145-168. 

Selvaraj, K., Chen, C.A. (2006). Moderate Chemical Weathering of Subtropical Taiwan: Constraints from Solid-Phase Geochemistry of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. The Journal of Geology, Vol. 114, No. 1, pp. 101-116. 

Singh, M., Sharma, M., Tobschall, H.J. (2005). Weathering of the Ganga alluvial plain, northern India: Implications from fluvial geochemistry of the Gomati River. Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 1-21. 

Tran, D.L., Nguyen, X.B. (1988). Geological mapping of Vietnam at 1:500,000 scale. Department of Geology and Mineral Resources. (in Vietnamese)

Tran, V.T., Vu, K. (2009). Geology and Natural Resources of Vietnam. Natural Science and Technics Publishing House, Hanoi,  589 pp. (in Vietnamese)

Vital, H., Stattegger, K. (2000). Major and trace elements of stream sediments from the lowermost Amazon River. Chemical Geology, Vol. 168, No. 1-2, pp. 151-168. 

Wan, S., Li, A., Clift, P.D., and Stuut, J.B.W. (2007). Development of the East Asian monsoon: mineralogical and sedimentologic records in the northern South China Sea since 20 Ma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 254, No. 3-4, pp. 561-582.

Wang, H., Liu, Z., Sathiamurthy, E., Colin, C., Li, J., and Zhao, Y. (2011). Chemical weathering in Malay Peninsula and North Borneo: clay mineralogy and element geochemistry of river surface sediments. Science China Earth Sciences, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 272-282.

Wei, G., Li, X.H., Liu, Y., Shao, L., Liang, X. (2006). Geochemical record of chemical weathering and monsoon climate change since the early Miocen in the South China Sea. Paleoceanography, Vol21, pp. 1-11.

Other articles