Prediction of ground surface settlement induced by twin tunnelling in urban areas

  • Affiliations:

    1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam
    2 Saint-Petersburg mining university, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
    3 Publishing office, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam

  • *Corresponding:
    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Received: 4th-Nov-2021
  • Revised: 12th-Feb-2022
  • Accepted: 18th-Mar-2022
  • Online: 31st-July-2022
Pages: 22 - 28
Views: 3581
Downloads: 2260
Rating: 5.0, Total rating: 221
Yours rating


Tunnelling in urban areas is growing in response to efficient transportation, many urban tunnels are constructed in soft ground at shallow depths. Urban tunnels are usually constructed as twin-parallel tunnels and their adjacent constructions may cause ground settlements that distort and damage the existing structures and utilities above the tunnel. In the past few decades, tunnel boring machines have been used to drill in increasingly difficult geotechnical conditions such as soft ground like soft clay. Metro Line 3 of the Hanoi metro system is designed of twin tunnels horizontally aligned in soft ground. The prediction of ground movements is an important part of the planning stage of any urban tunnelling project. This paper presents the results of numerical simulation by using ABAQUS finite element software to predict the vertical displacement at the surface caused by twin tunnelling of Hanoi pilot light metro line 03. According to numerical simulation results, the maximum vertical displacement at the surface caused by the left line tunnel and twin tunnels bore excavations is values of 12.8 and 21.3 mm, respectively. The maximum vertical displacement can be reached after the shield passes by a distance ranging from 30÷40 m. Twin tunnelling only affects the maximum vertical displacement at approximately 20÷30 m before excavation face tunnel. After the left line tunnel bore excavations, the magnitudes of the vertical displacement directly above the face tunnel (x = 0 m) is 7.9 mm coinciding with 61.7% of the maximum vertical displacement. After the twin tunnels bore excavations, The maximum vertical displacement directly above the face tunnel (x = 0 m) is 13.1 mm coinciding with 61.5% of the maximum vertical displacement.

How to Cite
Do, T.Ngoc, Grigorevich, P.Anatoliy and Vo, C.Cong Thi 2022. Prediction of ground surface settlement induced by twin tunnelling in urban areas (in Vietnamese). Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences. 63, 3a (Jul, 2022), 22-28. DOI:

Addenbrooke, T. I. and Potts, D. M., (2001). Twin tunnel interaction - surface and subsurface effects. International Journal of Geomechanics. Volume 1: 249-271.Attewell P. B. and Yeates J., (1984). Tunnelling in soil. In P.B. Attewell and R.K. Taylor, editors, Ground movements and their effects on structures. Surrey University Press, 132-215.Bartlett T. I. and Bubbers B. L., (1979). Surface movement caused by bored tunnelling. Proceedings conference on subway construction; Budapest, 513-89.Burland, J., Jardine, F. and Standing, J., (2001). Building Response to Tunnelling. Case Studies from Construction of the Jubilee Line Extension, London, Thomas Telford. Vol. 2, 540 pages.Clough, G. W. and Schmidt, B., (1981). Design and performance of excavations and tunnels in soft clay, Soft clay engineering. Elsevier, 569-634.Cording, E. J. and Hansmire, W. H., (1975). Displacement around soft tunnels. Proc. 5th Pam-Am Conf. on Soil Mech. and Found. Engineering, Buenos Aires, Vol. 4: 571-633.SYSTRA S. A., (2012). Design report technical design, Project: Hanoi pilot light metro line section Nhon - Hanoi railway station, package: underground section - line and stations package number: Package: underground section - line and stations. Package number: HPLMLP/CP-03/ Site specific geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical report - Cat Linh station (station 10), Hanoi, Vietnam, 23 pages.SYSTRA S. A., (2012). Geotechnical interpretative report underground section - Design report technical design, Project: Hanoi pilot light metro line 03 Section Nhon - Hanoi Railway station. Hanoi, Vietnam, 113 pages. Hage Chehade F. and Shahrour I., (2008). Numerical analysis of the interaction between twin-tunnels: Influence of the relative position and construction procedure. Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, 2008, vol 23: 210-214.Harris, D. I., Pooley, A. J., Menkiti, C. O., and Stephenson, J. A., (1996). Construction of low level tunnels below Waterloo Station with compensation grouting for Jubilee line extension. Geotechnical aspects og underground construction in soft ground, R. J. Mair and R. N. Taylor, eds., Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 361-366.Hunt, D. V. L., (2005). Predicting the ground movements above twin tunnels constructed in London Clay. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Birmingham. Birmingham, 302 pages.Mair. R. J., (1996). Settlement effects of bored tunnels. In International symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground. London, 1996. Balkema, 43-53.O’Reilly, M. P. and New, B. M. (1982). Settlements above tunnels in the UK - their magnitude and prediction. Tunnelling 82: 173-181.Peck, R. B., (1969). Deep excavations and tunnelling in soft ground. In: Proc. 7th ICSMFE, State-of-the-art Volume, Mexico City. Mexico: Sociedad Mexicana de Mecánica de Suelos, 225-290.

Other articles